O. P.-Cambridge, 1862
Female ? mm; male ? mm.
Latreille, 1804. (Leaf curling sac spiders).
Characters of genus:
Compact, small to medium sized spiders with oval cephalothorax and slightly protruding, broad head. There are two rows of eyes, the eyes of the posterior row widely set apart. It may appear as there are six eyes in the front row since the laterals of both rows are fairly close together. Anterior row recurved. Posterior row straight or slightly recurved. Fovea short, dark and shallow but quite indistinct in species with relatively dense silky hairing on carapace. Labium longer than wide. Maxilla with scopulae. Endites without a transverse or oblique depression. Legs long with leg IV longest. Tarsi with conspicuous scopulae, two-clawed (claws long). Abdomen elongate with sparse to rather dense coverage of silky hairs depending on species. Hues of yellow, orange and brown are the prevailing body colours, sometimes the cardiac mark is darker. A few species have the cardiac mark followed by chevrons. Anterior spinners conical and and situated close together or contiguous. The two sexes do not differ much. Compared to females, males are slightly smaller, often with chelicerae longer and more tapering and the legs are relatively longer.
Wagner, 1887 (Foliage Spiders).
Characters of family:
The clubionids are 8-eyed, ecribellate spiders possessing two tarsal claws. The species superficially resemble members of the Gnaphosidae, but the anterior spinners of the clubionids are conical and the posterior median eyes are circular. The sexes are quite similar with the males slightly smaller and often with more elongate and slender chelicers as well as longer legs. The eyes are uniform in size, arranged close to the anterior edge of the carapace in two fairly wide rows each with four eyes. The posterior row is slightly wider than the anterior. The carapace is ovoid, clearly longer than wide and with short, shallow fovea. However, in some species fovea is absent. The sternum is distinctly margined in some species. The chelicers are rather long and stout and the fang furrows are provided with teeth both pro- and retromarginally. Some males have strongly developed chelicerae with a long fang. Also, in many species the chelicers are conspicuously dark. Endites are longer than wide and without the depression seen in gnaphosids. The endites are furnished with a brush of setae (scopulae) on distal end to improve grip of prey. The labium is longer than wide. The body is carried close to the substratum on moderately long, strong legs with normal prograde orientation. The legs are provided with two tarsal claws with dense claw tufts and scopulae giving good adhesion to slippery surfaces such as leaves. The tibia and metatarsi have one, two, or more pairs of spines ventrally. Some species have legs I the longest while other species legs IV. The abdomen is oval often tapering towards the spinners. Males sometimes have a small scutum. The abdomen usually uniformly coloured except for darker cardiac mark. Sometimes there are darker markings such as a median line or chevrons in the same colours as the cardiac mark. The anterior spinners of the clubionids are conical and contiguous and all three pairs form a compact cluster. The spiracle is situated close to the spinners. Clubionids are entelegyne spiders having the genital groove with its openings to the internal genitalia covered by a well-sclerotized plate (epigastric scutum), which also bears the paired copulatory openings. The spermathecae are often visible through the integument. The male palp has a retrolateral tibial apophysis. The shape of the apophysis varies greatly between species and is an important morphological character when identifying the species under the stereomicroscope.
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