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Pardosa palustris  (Linnaeus, 1758) (Marsh wolf-spider)
≤ 1900   1901-1979   1980-2005   2006 ≤
Description: Males and females rather similar in markings but males are darker than females. It should be noted that much of the patterns are due to coloured hairs which may fall off as the specimen gets older resulting in a generally darker appearance as specimen age between moults. The male carapace is dark reddish brown to blackish with distinct white median stripe tapering anteriorly. The submarginal bands are yellowish white due to partly coverage of whitish recumbent hairs. Legs are yellow brown with dark streaks on femora and inward segments. Dorsum of abdomen mottled in shades of dark greyish brown, laterally with more or less distinct white spots which may unite to form longitudinal lines. The cardiac mark is whitish. The lighter females have dark brown carapace and brownish abdomens with white markings more pronounced than in males. Legs are yellowish brown with dark spots on femora and inward segments. The female epigyne large and subtriangular.  Size: Female 5.0-6.5 mm; male 4.5-5.5 mm.

Genus: Pardosa C. L. Koch, 1847. (Thinlegged wolf spiders). Characters of genus: Pardosa is distinguished from other Lycosid genera by the height of clypeus being at least twice the diameter of a anterior lateral eye, and by the head having almost vertical sides when viewed from in front. Fairly small, slender species, usually with a light median band on the carapace. The genus contains a large number of species, many of which are both common and abundant. They are active during the day, and often very noticeable when running in the sunshine or basking in exposed places. Some species cannot be identified on the basis of the general appearance, and require microscopic examination of the genitals for proper identification.

Family: Lycosidae Sundevall, 1833 (Wolf Spiders). Characters of family: The lycosids belong to the group of araneomorph, ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. The eyes are all dark in colour and arranged in three rows in a characteristic fashion. The anterior row has four small eyes set in a straight or slightly curved row, the second row has two large eyes further up on the on the vertical front, and the posterior row has two medium-sized eyes on the sides of the head which can be more or less steep sided. There are only few additional diagnostic characters of importance for the family, i.e. the lack of a retrolateral tibial apophysis on the male palp and that the female of many species carries her egg sack attached to the spinners. The carapace is longer than wide with the head region narrowed and high. It is usually densely covered with hairs and often with longitudinal median or lateral bands or both. In some genera there are characteristic bars in the median band or elongate U-, Y-shaped marks. The sternum is oval to shield shaped (scutiform). The chelicerae are relatively strong with toothed cheliceral furrow and prominent lateral condyle (boss). The labium is a wide as long, about half the length of endites. Legs are spinose and provided with 3 tarsal claws, usually with scopulae for adhesion. The second segments of the legs (trochanters) are notched. The abdomen is oval, always covered with dense hairs. There is no colulus in front of the spinners. The tracheal spiracle is situated just in front of the spinners. The epigyne is well sclerotized median septum which may be large and plate-like. The male palp is only rarely provided with a tibial apophysis. The tip of the male palp may have one or more claws.
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